Επιστολές για την αντικυνηγετική σελίδα του Γυμνασίου Μεταμόρφωσης
Τον Απρίλιο του 2003 ανακαλύψαμε την ιστοσελίδα του 1ου Γυμνασίου Μεταμόρφωσης και, πιό συγκεκριμένα,
μια εργασία για την πανίδα της Ελλάδος γραμμένη στα αγγλικά. Εδώ είναι ο σύνδεσμος προς τη σελίδα του σχολείου:
Εδώ μπορείτε να δείτε ένα πιστό αντίγραφο της σελίδας για την περίπτωση που δεν δουλεύει ο παραπάνω σύνδεσμος:
THE FAUNA OF GREECE
The first record on the animals of Greece dates back 2300 years ago when Aristotelis offered detailed descriptions of six hundred species in Stories about Animals. Earlier writers and poets including Homer, Aesop and Hesiod made references to animals but Aristotelis was the first to dedicate a whole work to the systematic description of the animals which existed in ancient Greece.
The next major contribution to the study of Greek wildlife was the result of the French Scientific Mission to the Peloponnese (1832-1836). Since that expedition, the number of studies of Hellenic fauna by foreign and Greek researchers has steadily increased.
Today, however, there are still many gaps in our Knowledge and it is not Known exactly how many species reside in Greece. Though the invertebrate category is the most inconclusive, there may also be vertebrate species that have not yet been scientifically studied or recorded. Though most species have been recorded, information on wildlife distribution throughout the Hellenic territory, their biology and ecology and the state of their populations is largely inadequate.
Greece' s geographical position between Europe, Asia and Africa gives a special character to the country's fauna. Greece's animals are a rich mixture of European, Asian and Africa species together with a considerable number of endemic species. Greece's climate and its vast variety of biotopes are the primary reasons why it is richer than most European countries in wildlife and its unique species of fauna and flora have incomparable value.
PROBLEMS AND THREATS TO THE FAUNA
Over the last century, especially since the 1960s, the expansion and intensification of human development activities have greatly increased the environmental threats to Greece's wildlife, leading to a considerable decrease in the number of many species. The main threats to Greece's fauna and biotopes today, both direct and indirect, are summarized below.
A. Indirect Threats
1. Alteration and Destruction of biotopes
This is the most serious problem faced by fauna worldwide today. Biotope alteration is almost exclusively due to recent economic development ( especially during the post -war years) and appears in various forms now such as: The draining of wetlands for the acquisition of agricultural land or malaria control, which still continues today and often proves to be a complete failure because the remaining soil is not capable of supporting agriculture on a long - and intensification of agriculture in Greece created new problems term basis and the valuable biotopes are irreversibly destroyed. Greece's wetlands continue to be under considerable pressure and face new threats including illegal construction, liquid and solid waste pollution, alterations of hydrological parameters and recent aquaculture activities which are often implemented without consideration of environmental consequences.
Delta Evros, wetland
The destruction of Greece's woodlands, which is almost exclusively due to human activities rather than natural causes. The socioeconomic development of modern Greece has resulted in the clearing of flat and semi- flat forest areas for agricultural expansion, the gradual intensification of forest resource exploitation, overgrazing and clearing for housing and tourist facilities. Fires, a contemporary menace to the Hellenic forests, have had a disastrous impact on fauna.
The mechanization of Agricultural methods and the restructuring and intensification of agricultural in Greece created new problems for the country's fauna, especially bird species which are more vulnerable than other animals.
The use of chemicals in agriculture (pesticides, fertilizers etc.) is another particularly grave problem worldwide. Aerial spraying of olive groves (using organophosphorus compounds) is especially harmful to birds and small mammals, resulting in their mass death.
3. Other indirect Threats The fauna in Greece also face problems resulting from the general economic development of the countryside. Included in this category are the following activities:
B. Direct Threats
It is true that in economically developed countries has nothing to do with man's primordial and often romanticized custom of killing of animals for food. The question of hunting deserves careful attention in Greece and other Mediterranean countries where the sport constitutes a serious threat to fauna. The overall increase in the economic standards in Greece have made it easier for people to obtain guns and to access remote areas in the country side. Human intervention in Greece's natural biotopes have led to a decrease in the number of birds and mammals.
Although Greece has a great variety of animals, the species which are hunted are small in number and are especially vulnerable to extinction because of the country's small geographic area and the heterogeneity of its biotopes.
The majority of hunters in Greece lack even a basic Knowledge of the species of their games. Their inability to identify various species results in the slaughter every year of rare, protected species .For threatened bird species ,which often coexist with other birds, which can legally be hunted, the problem is especially severe. Very few hunters would hesitate to shoot Red Geese , Dwarf Geese, Slenderbilled curlews and other rare species either purposely or simply because they are unable to distinguish rare birds from more common species.
Kri kri hunting
A parallel problem is the great disturbance by hunters of the natural environment, particularly wetlands. This human invasion of habitats interrupts the natural cycles of ducks, wading birds and other waterfowl which must feed and rest undisturbed during certain periods in their biological cycles. Often environmental disturbances by hunters cause more detrimental consequences for bird species than the actual hunting.
Illegal hunting has also had especially harmful effects on large mammal populations. The disappearance of the Wild Boar from the Peloponnese and the dramatic reduction in the population of Roe Deer is mainly due to hunting. Roe Deer, the Chamois and Wild Goat are often victims of organized, illegal hunting techniques. Illegal hunting of hare using artificial lights, for example, is a common practice in many parts of the country. A 1988 study by the Ministry of Agriculture revealed that many bears are killed during organized hunting of wild boars.
2. Capture, Trading and Collection of Rare Species
Capture, Trading and Collection of Rare Species
Poacher use any available method to capture wild fauna species- including nets, traps, limesticks, etc- either for food or to sell as pets. The vast majority of birds illegally captured in Greece today are birds kept in captivity because of their ability to sing. Related to hunting, is the illegal of staffing or embalming species for trade. Many impressive birds and mammals are killed for this purpose. Finally, both foreign and Greek collectors seek many species of rare birds and endemic reptiles for trade.
3. Use of Poisoned Bait- «Pest» Species
Snake of Milos
Efforts to control the populations of certain carnivorous mammals and birds - the so-called «pest» species - is one of the most controversial and discussed subjects worldwide. In actuality, there are no «harmful» or «useful» animals and many years of experience in a number of countries have shone that such attempts are rather futile and ineffective.
Decades of using strychnine bait to kill wolves, foxes and jackals resulted in the depletion of these animals in many areas of Greece before the practice was abandoned in 1981. It also resulted in the simultaneous dramatic reduction in the number of carrion eaters, for example the Griffon Vulture. Today they are exterminated in a more organized way using only potassium cyanide. The exact effects of the poison , however, on the birds has not yet been investigated and the bait often kills animals which are not considered «harmful» such as the Wildcat ,The Marbled Polecat, the Badger and others.
In conclusion to this chapter on the threats faced by wild fauna in Greece today, it is important to note that the problems are becoming more intense and more difficult to resolve because of lack of environmental education and sensitivity of the public despite progress made in recent years.
Our country has already designated the following 11 such wetlands:
The 10 National Parks are the following:
Ακολουθεί μια πρόχειρη μετάφραση του επίμαχου κοματιού (B. Direct Threats - 1. Hunting):
Αμεσες απειλές - Κυνήγι
Είναι αλήθεια ότι στις οικονομικά αναπτυγμένες χώρες το κυνήγι δεν έχει καμία σχέση με την πρωτόγονη και συχνά ρομαντική συνήθεια της δολοφονίας των ζώων για τροφή.
Το θέμα αξίζει ιδιαίτερη προσοχή στην Ελλάδα και άλλες μεσογειακές χώρες όπου το κυνήγι αποτελεί μια σοβαρή απειλή στην πανίδα.
Η γενική αύξηση του βιοτικού επιπέδου στην Ελλάδα έχει διευκολύνει τους ανθρώπους να αγοράζουν όπλα και να έχουν πρόσβαση σε απομακρυσμένες περιοχές της χώρας.
Ακολούθησαν τρείς επιστολές μελών μας οι οποίες έμειναν αναπάντητες από τους υπεύθυνους της ιστοσελίδας:
Με τιμή και θαυμασμό
Καλημέρα σας και καλό Πάσχα
Με τιμή και θαυμασμό
Some Comments about...
Human intervention in Greece's natural biotopes have led to a decrease in the number of birds and mammals. This is true, but believe me it is not hunting activity, which was increased dramatically (if at all) during the recent years. Consider the increase of population of hunters compared for example to the increase of inhabited places, areas which are used by modern agricultural activities without care for reservation etc. and you may come up with useful conclusions.
With friendly regards,
Σχόλια ενός κυνηγού για την Ιστοσελίδα σας
Με φιλικούς χαιρετισμούς